爵士樂

爵士樂簡介
  • 爵士樂起源於美國,宛若一種語言,被深刻豐富的生命經驗層層覆蓋,從人生閱歷及人類情感中抽取靈感,化為創作能量。
  • 爵士音樂家擁有自己一套獨特的樂器演奏方式
  • 爵士樂的特點:強烈、突出的韻律、切分節奏模式、複調合奏演出、不同程度的即興、獨特的音色及演奏技巧……
  • 爵士樂有多種流派,從散拍 (ragtime)、藍調 (blues) 至融合爵士 (fusion-jazz),以下將會講解部分重要流派。
脈絡
  • 錫代利亞,密蘇里州 (Sedalia, Missouri)
  • 隨著1870年代鋼琴製作的新發展,鋼琴價格下調,使許多美國家庭有能力購買。
  • 黑人族群開始轉化他們的音樂,將勞動歌、cakewalk (步態競賽) 及靈歌 (spiritual) 等以鼓演奏的歌曲轉為鋼琴節奏。
  • 大部分創作,主要是鋼琴音樂
Highlights
欣賞
Video References
Scott Joplin - Maple Leaf Rag (1899)
Tom Turpin - St Louis Rag (1903)
Joseph Lamb – Bohemia (1919)
脈絡
  • 法國、西班牙、英國、意大利、德國移民、奴隸和黑人,創建了一個讓不同族群融和的環境,他們的音樂融為一體,合併成最早期的爵士樂形式。
  • 新奧爾良,又名新月城,是文化交流溫床,培養出許多重要的爵士樂手
  • 所有新奧爾良歐裔美洲人的爵士樂都被稱為「迪克西蘭」
  • 原本的迪克西蘭爵士樂隊-以白人風格演奏爵士樂:表現力沒那麼強,技術卻更精通
  • 一群新奧爾良白人音樂家於1916年在芝加哥組織樂團,1917於紐約演出
  • New Orleans Rhythm Kings於1922年首次錄音
Highlights
欣賞
Video References
MUSKRAT RAMBLE by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five 1926
Ben Pollack (drums) - New Orleans Rhythm Kings (NORK) – Wolverine Blues (1923)
The Original Dixieland Jazz Band (ODJB) - Livery Stable Blues (1917)
Paul Barbarin (drums) – Bourbon Street Parade (1955)
Kid Ory (trombone) – Ory’s Creole Trombone (1922)
Miff Mole (trombone) – Original Dixieland One Step (1917)
Johnny Dodds (clarinet & saxophone) – New Orleans Wanderers- Perdido Street Blues(1926)
Sidney Bechet (clarinet & saxophone) – Texas Moaner (1924) (recorded with Louis Armstrong)
Lonnie Johnson (guitar & banjo) – I’m not Rough (1927) (recorded with Louis Armstrong, Kid Ory, Johnny Dodds)
Fate Marable (piano) – Pianoflage(1924) (recorded with Fate Marable’s Society Syncopators)
脈絡
  • 咆勃 (Bebop) 這詞是在1945年由一個小號樂手Dizzy Gillespie所改
  • 「Bebop」這字的發音就像發出低五度音程
  • 基於其大量切分音和複雜節奏,主要供人聆聽多於跳舞
  • 從大樂隊轉向為規模較小的組合,如三重奏、四重奏及五重奏。
  • 更多切分音和即興手法,以鋼琴和結他伴隨walking bass。
Highlights
欣賞

聆聽

  • Charlie Christian – Swing to Bop (1941)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ce9Jtl9D6FQ

 

  • Art Tatum – Yesterdays

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Cs_zb4q14

 

  • Oscar Peterson – C

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTJhHn-TuDY

 

  • Miles Davis (with Charlie Parker) – Ornithology

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDdAL8TuKKk

 

  • Dexter Gordon – Lady Bird (1964)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0vhqDCy9eQ

 

  • Thelonious Monk (piano) – ‘Round Midnight

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZskBDZ40os (Recorded in 1958)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xC68NtEmAcc (Monk performing in 1969)

 

 

 

 

  • Charlie Parker (saxophone) – Billie’s Bounce (1945) (recorded with Dizzy Gillespie)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4mRaEzwTYo

 

分析
  • 以三全音(tritone)作經過和弦(passing chord)或特別的和諧效果。
  • 藍調音符(blue note)與三全音(tritone)。
Video References
Thelonious Monk (piano) – ‘Round Midnight (Recorded in 1958)
Thelonious Monk (piano) – ‘Round Midnight (Monk performing in 1969)
Bud Powell (piano) – Bouncing with Bud (1946)
Kenny Clarke (drums) – Epistrophy (1957) (co-wrote with Monk)
Lester Young (saxophone) – Love me or Leave Me (1956)
Charlie Parker (saxophone) – Billie’s Bounce (1945) (recorded with Dizzy Gillespie)
Shaw 'Nuff by Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker (1945)
Charlie Christian – Swing to Bop (1941)
Art Tatum – Yesterdays
Oscar Peterson – C
脈絡
  • 強調旋律與和音的咆勃(Bebop)興盛多年後,衍生出一鼓追求風格冷靜的爵士樂風潮。
  • 較不明顯的切分音和多樣化的節奏,音樂更緊密和on the beat。
  • 避免粗糙刺耳
  • 更流暢和更長的旋律樂句、較不明顯的切分音和多變節奏、演奏緊密而排子精準
Highlights
欣賞
  • Dave Brubeck – Take Five (1959)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DHuW1h1wHw

 

  • Clifford Brown – Hymn of the Orient (1956)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grWzEXktHeQ

 

  • Chet Baker – My Funny Valentine (1959)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8SGAcP7Zh6U

 

  • Paul Desmond – Skylark (1974)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x_ZPceluIsY

 

 

  • No Figs (1950) (composed by Lennie Tristano) [recorded with Buddy DeFranco (clarinet), Kai Winding (trombone), Lee Konitz (alto sax), Billy Bauer (guitar), Lennie Tristano (piano), Eddie Safranski (bass), Max Roach (drums)] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEm-ZCHePTI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video References
Dave Brubeck – Take Five (1959)
Clifford Brown – Hymn of the Orient (1956)
Chet Baker – My Funny Valentine (1959)
Paul Desmond – Skylark (1974)
Lennie Tristano (pianist & composer) - Intuition (1949)
The Metronome All-Stars 1950 - Double Date / No Figs
John Lewis (pianist & composer) – Rouge (1949) (recorded with Miles Davis, Kenny Clarke, Lee Konitz)
Tadd Dameron (pianist & composer) – Ladybird (1949) (Live performance with Miles Davis, Kenny Clarke)
脈絡
  • 找到新的演奏方法,與現代歐洲音樂會音樂 (concert music) 相比,有愈來愈多片段有著機械般的傳統功能和聲系統屬性
  • 自由音調或無調;新式的節奏概念。
  • 韻律、節拍及對稱的瓦解。
  • 融合「世界音樂」,包括阿拉伯、非洲和印度風格。
  • 將聲音導往噪音範疇,增加音樂強度與不和諧音。
  • 高能量的演奏打破樂器固有的限制。
Highlights
欣賞
Video References
John Coltrane (saxophone) - Ascension (1965)
Ornette Coleman (saxophone) - Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation (1960)
Don Cherry (trumpeter & composer) – Lonely Woman (1959) (From the album The Shape of Jazz to Come) (recorded with Ornette Coleman, Charlie Haden)
Oscar Peterson and the Modern Jazz Quartet – At the Opera House (live performance 1957)
Cecil Taylor (piano) - Jitney #2 (1974)
Cecil Taylor (piano) - Steps (1966) (From the album Unit Structures)
Charlie Haden (bass) – Some Day (1977) (written by & recorded with Ornette Coleman)